Transcript to the film, "Look to Lockheed For Leadership" (1940) Written by Walter Wise, ® Trade Films, inc. Transcribed by Johnny, 2011.
LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT LOOK TO LOCKHEED FOR LEADERSHIP
From the very beginning, man has struggled ever onward in his conquest of time and space. For countless centuries lofty mountains mutely challenged him, standing as stalwart barriers across his path. Upon the oceans that surrounded him, he launched his ships. At the mercy of wind and tide they made slow head-way across the waters. Over the low lands, the wilderness of desert, and green valleys he plodded his weary way. Earthbound in the conquest of time and space. But man is no longer earthbound and Lockheed rides the airways with a thrust of bright propellers and the flash of gleaming wings, and behind this Lockheed lies aviation history.
In Nineteen Hundred Three on the plains of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina this history began. In the grand daddy of all modern planes, the Wright Brothers won immortality by sustaining flight in a heavier-than-air flying machine. There is no fuss or ceremony, no cheering crowds, the motors sputter and catch, weights drop, the ship catapults off the ground, into the air for the first flight on record. Since then, aviation history is written in a never-fading book of records.
In 1928 a Lockheed Vega, the well-known "Yankee Doodle," reaches New York from Los Angeles in 18 hours and 58 minutes. At the controls are Colonel Arthur Gobel and Harry Tucker.
In 1929 Captain Frank Hawks climbs aboard his Lockheed to set a new transcontinental mark. "Good luck, Captain, New York is only three thousand miles away." Off on his way to a new record, one of the many he is to establish in the years that follow.
Into the cockpit of his Lockheed Sirius climbs Colonel Charles Lindbergh; Mrs. Lindbergh is with him. Flying together, as always, they're heading from Washington, D.C. across the Bering Sea to Japan. A perfect landing after almost half the world has rolled by beneath their wings. Cheers and waving flags as Tokyo greets them.
That same year, 1931, Ruth Nicohls lands her Lockheed Vega after establishing a new feminine altitude record of 28,743 ft. "Nice going, Miss Nichols."
1933 A famous L ockheed, the Winnie Mae, carrying a famous flyer, comes home from a solo flight around the world. What an achievement for Wiley Post, first man to fly around the world alone, and first to fly around the world twice, both times in a Lockheed.
Colonel and Mrs. Lindbergh are starting out on another and perhaps their greatest journey, a 29,000 mile survey flight from New York to Labrador, Greenland, Iceland, Europe, the Azores, Africa, Brazil and return to New York.
1934 finds Sir Charles Kingsford Smith, together with Captain P.G. Taylor, completing a 7,000 mile trip from Australia to Oakland, California. It is the first crossing of the Pacific from West to East. And Sir Charles, in his Lockheed Altair, The Lady Southern Cross, has made it in less than 55 hours. This great flyer and great plane certainly deserve congratulations.
In 1935 Amelia Aerhart flies her Lockheed from Honolulu to Oakland. She is the first woman to make a solo flight over the Pacific, covering the distance in 18 hours 16 minutes The crowd hails her for an outstanding performance
1938 Howard Hughes hurries to his plane for the start of his race around the world. Three days, 19 hours and 9 minutes later his Lockheed brings him back to New York and a new record. In less than four days he saw five sunrises and the plane actually beat the revolution of the earth on its axis.
Records and more records, and these are just part of a long list, but as exciting as they are they mean nothing to the true goal of aviation unless the experience gained is applied to further the speed, safety and all-around performance of air transportation. And with the cooperation of the pilots who made these famous flights, Lockheed has been able to achieve that performance and create new standards of efficiency.
That was true in the development of this Electra, which was Lockheed's first all-metal, bi-motor transport. It made history on the air lanes of the world, and every subsequent model has lived up to its tradition.
Here is the Twelve. It is a smaller ship, accommodating 6 passengers and answering the proven need for a plane that can combine economy with the performance of a large airliner.
This Lodestar is a luxury transport, certainly one of the best looking. It is today probably the fastest commercial ship on regular airline service.
And for the convenience of all customers, service and parts depots have been established throughout the world to maintain the peak performance of Lockheed's vast fleet. And in all corners of the globe, 24 hours of every day these ships fly the air ways in routine flight confidently accomplishing the jobs for which they were built. The Conquerors of Time and Space.
Lockheed over North America: United Airlines Continental Airlines, Inc. Mid Continent Airlines, Inc. Northwest Airlines Chicago and Southern Airlines Braniff Airways, Inc. National Airlines Delta Airlines Boston Maine Airways, Inc. Trans Canada Airlines Pacific Alaska Airways
Lockheed over Central America: Lineas aerius mineras TACA Cubana de Aviacion Lockheed over South America: Pan American Airways, Inc. KLM Air France Avianca Linea Aeropostal Venezolana
Lockheed over Africa: Air France Air Afrique Aero Maritime South African Airways DETA
Lockheed over Europe: British Airways, Ltd. Aer Lingus Teranta KLM LOT Aeroput LARES Romania Air France
Lockheed over Asia: KLM KNILM Japan Air Transport Company, Ltd.
Lockheed over the Antipodes: KNILM McRobertson Miller Aviation Company Guinea Airways Ansett Airways, Ltd. W.R. Carpenter Airlines Union Airways of New Zealand
Lockheeds also serve high government officials of the Netherlands East Indies, Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Great Britain, India, and the United States
World Wide Coverage. But it has not been accomplished in a day. It is the result of a smooth running combination of men and machines. In that combination lies the story of Lockheed itself. It is a success story: modern, exciting, typically American.
The Lockheed Aircraft Corporation Plant, Burbank, California, in 1926. And today, the same company, the same location, but quite definitely not the same plant. As recently as 1932, sales aggregated the overwhelming total of $23,298 dollars and 3 cents. In 1940 actual deliveries amounted to more than $42 million dollars, and conservative estimates indicate that in 1941 this figure will be more than doubled. And to the men of Lockheed belongs a large share of the credit, to their skill and to their loyalty. They are a cross section of typical American workmen: Drillers, riveters, tool makers, die casters, machinists, and technicians. In 1931 there were only 300 of them. 1941 over 35,000. Every man who checks in from office boy on up has taken and passed exhaustive tests covering intelligence, temperament and special aptitude to prove his individual ability. 35,000 American workmen, the right men for the right jobs, to build the best planes.
This is not a trick shot made with mirrors. It is the drafting room of the engineering department where every new Lockheed has its beginning. A beginning conceived with the purpose of supplying the answer to definite needs of the aviation industry. To attain this goal, over 850 engineers make over 5,000 drawing plans devoting a total of over 200,000 work hours to their mission of creating one new design. The component parts of a modern airplane's wing, fuselage and tail surface are almost countless in number, yet every single one of them must be engineered. Even the most minute part receives the greatest attention. Four separate drawings are made showing detail from 4 different angles. Although the part is no larger than a silver dollar, it will have to go a great deal further. The interior of a plane is one feature of design seldom associated in one's mind as coming under the supervision of the engineer, yet one of his most important jobs is to provide utter comfort for passengers traveling through the air at high speeds. The Lodestar's cabin has been designed for this comfort. Inside, the sound of powerful motors is reduced to a pleasant hum, by scientific sound proofing and vibration control. Restful chairs, ample space and headroom are results of thoughtful planning. And all Lockheeds are especially adaptable to the requirements of private owners. For businessmen, to whom time means money, the Lodestar is convertible into a convenient and dependable office in the sky. The compact Twelve becomes a comfortable lounge for attending important events anywhere, at any time. The cabin of Lockheed's new four-motor transport, the Excalibur, will look very much like this. Although the plane is still under construction, the engineers have built an exact replica known as a mock-up out of wood. In this way every possible detail of passenger comfort can be effectively pre-determined and applied. But the ideas and plans that this man and the hundreds like him put into execution are not only those of Lockheed's chief engineers but those of the entire flying world.
For the Market Research Division maintains close contact with the operative branch of the industry. The staff compiles lists of important features relating to a plane's design. These findings are set up in the form of questionnaires. If You Were To Build Your Own Ship. On the flight station where would you locate emergency controls? On the engine control stand where would you put the levers? And the Rudder pedals? These comprehensive questionnaires are sent to airline executives, pilots, transport officials, in every corner of the world. To Trans Canada Airlines, R.C. McLeod in South Africa, Tri American Aviation, Buenos Aires. The list is almost endless but to mention a few more: American Airlines, Lt.Thatch, V P 5 Squadron, Canal Zone and British Airways. The replies to these pamphlets are carefully sorted, for they represent knowledge gained under actual flight conditions. Detailed graphs and charts are compiled by competent statisticians. No suggestion is too small. Every answer to every question is checked and noted. These findings are recorded in another pamphlet: "You told us This is the way you would do it." On flight stations, on engine control stands. And on rudder pedals, we asked: "Are brake toe pedals desirable?" 93% said yes, 7% no. That verdict is submitted by men whose combined opinions represent the experience of over 16 million hours of flying. These practical viewpoints, as gathered by Market Research, are submitted to the engineers. They combine these ideas, together with their own creative ability, in the conception and building of every new Lockheed plane. That's how Lockheed designs airplanes, to suit the men who know airplanes best: Operators, pilots, and regular airline passengers. And the first form a new plane takes is on paper. From these drawings and thousands like them, an exact scale model known as a wind-tunnel model is made and is connected to instruments which determine its flight characteristics. The model is hand carved, accurate to the fraction of an inch, weighs over 500 lbs. and costs more than $5,000 to build. The door is closed, the wind tunnel sealed. A flip of a switch and the wind propeller whips up to speed. The model is exposed to a far higher velocity than this 90 mph wind. The small wind tunnel model is actually subjected to and withstands a much greater force.
From an idea to an actuality, from theory to fact, from a model to a completed Lockheed.
The plane has been built! More than that, into it has been built the strength, ruggedness and durability, necessary for its safety and high speed performance. But not so long ago this shining plane was only a small part of a train load of metal addressed to Lockheed.
For the metal inside these wooden frames is the stuff that planes are made of. Hard and strong it must be fabricated by men and machines into the parts that make airliners. Giant shears act as mechanical scissors and cuts through them as if they were cloth. The high frequency router, a dental patient's nightmare, turns 15,000 revolutions a minute and cuts layers of metal into their rough shape. The bit turns so fast that it must be cooled by a constant stream of oil. The massive Hydro Press exerts an overall pressure of over 9 million pounds. And it literally squeezes parts out of metal. An endless tray of roller platforms carries a tray to workmen. the tray now continues its way into position under the press. The operator touches a switch, the press starts starts down and look out below. Almost unbeliveable pressure, an irresistible force but under perfect control and where plain sheet metal comes in finished parts come out. The Hydro Press turns out more parts in one minute than two man could complete in a whole day and turns them out more better and more accurately A compressed air stamp which forges metal is an excellent example of powerful machinery under absolute control. What a nut cracker this outfit would make. And yet its control is so delicate that i\t can crack an eg at least that's what the operator claims. Taps as gentle as a tack hammer, then the crushing impact it's so delicate What a nutcracker this outfit would make it can crack an egg at least that's what the operator claims look out there well, hello, stranger you certainly have a brand new kind of mama. Skilled men and precision machines have fabricated these parts. but even metal can be strengthened and protected. To do this there are several types of processing. Complete electrochemical anodizing baths provide parts with a protective coating of oxide film. This is a safeguard against the threat of corrosion of moisture. . It is an interesting fact that these parts are protected from any harmful effects of moisture by being given a bath. Another type of bath is used for a different purpose in order to strenghthen Immersed ina hot salt solution of sodium potassium nitrate. In large ovens, other parts are hardened by baking at 1500 derees Farenheit. and quenching them in oil.
It is easy enough to say that these parts which will eventually be the plane are strong constantly guard the Lockheed measure of strength is the duty of the testing laboratory. A spectograph is one of the most modern scientific testing devices measures the purity of the metal alloys that go into a plane. Tremendous heat created by an arc. These filings are placed in a cavity the light of the burning metal
It measures the burns sample filings of the metal.
These filings are placed adjustable opening of which falls upon a diffraction grating This diffraction grating light is separated by the grating into wavelengths and a these wavelengths photographic record of them is thus producecproduced. In this manner the spectograph immediately detects all impurities and any inferior metal is promptly discarded.
The sole purpose of this huge machine is to break things. Its powerful jaws capable of a compression of 300,000 pounds. about to crush a small section of the wing in order to measure its resistance of the wing, Now, watch carefully. The upper jaw is clamping down with a invisible force on a seemingly endless force just how frail is it? 60,000 pounds, 70,000 There it is, a slight ripple. The breaking point has been reached and it takes the pressure of over 80,000 pounds to even bend this 'frail' little section of a wing. For contrast let's see what happens to a solid cylinder of concrete which certainly appears much stronger there's the first crack and the concrete shatters completely under the pressure of less than 75,000 lbs. All stressed parts, such as forgings and castings, are X-rayed for any possible flaws in thh metal. Lockheed X-rays more parts than all other aircraft manufacturer around. than X-ray they may look new and shiny on the surface but that doesn't matter what do they look like underneath? This batch is fine, perfect. a different story here. Those slight almost imperceptible flaws which dooms it to the scrap heap. Mass production with the emphasis on quality and precision. Therefore every stressed part is X-rayed because Lockheed thinks it's even more important to be absolutely important sure find out what its like on the inside. Yes, every part of this plane is built with the strength ruggedness And there goes the Lodestar. Carrying a full load of 17,500 pounds it speeds down the runway for the take-off, in 15 seconds, after a run of only 860 feet, it leaves the ground and soars into the air, climbing rate 1200 ft per minute. And while the plane is in flight the dials and indicators on the panel are the guides by which a pilot flies. Over a half a mile of wire connects them with the controlling instruments and in flight the instruments must be infinitely accurate before they are installed. In the instrument testing laboratory each instrument and accessory is to all intents and purposes actually flown before being installed on the plane itself. For instance on this stand a motor duplicates the swing of a plane to test the turn and bank indicators. Here tachometers are also tested and propeller governors, vacuum pumps , fuel pumps, starters, generators and hydromatic motors for feathering propellers, The automatic pilot is checked by a vacuum system against mercury manometers. This small box can guide a plane in flight, keep it as true to its course as the most experienced pilot.
An airplane is a chain of which the the thousands of separate parts are the links. They must be forged together in order to shape the wing, the tail and the fuselage. The duty of the wing is to provide the lift that sustains the flight of an airplane. Here in the plant it must be assembled as flawlessly as it was designed. Although the wing is considered a it is really composed of three parts, two outer section and the center section. We are all familiar with the general shape of a wing. But while an outer section is in the first stages of assembly we can get a good idea of the complex structure on the inside. Every rib and cross piece has its purpose. Remember it was just a small part of the wing that we saw withstand a compression of 80,000 lbs. Each operation is executed with precision and care as the outer section moves down production line and takes shape. High-speed electric drills punch holes for the rivets There are more than 700 drillers or riveters who all have had previous training. Even so, before they're assigned to actual production. They must attend Lockheed's own school until they can uphold the plant's standard of efficiency and skill. There are more than 50,000 rivets on a completed wing. And every one of them is checked, examined and checked again. This requires an army of over 200 inspectors such as this one. every one of them is checked, examined and checkes again. But by teh time eery Lockheed plane is assembled Every sq in of it has been inspected at least 5 times. Inspector number 158 finds this row perfect and okays it. And the story of one outer wing section is the story of 10, of 20, of a thousand sections as they move down the line in an endless parade. Mass production with the emphasis on precision and quality. The assembly line for the center section of the wing is one of the largest and most vital units in the plant. It has to be because the center section is the strong man of the plane. It must be constructed and assembled so as to support heavy loads and withstand great strain, for it unites the two outer wings with the fuselage The fuselage will eventually rest in the gap between the two shoulders and the wings will be joined like arms on either side. The main beam of the center section is the strongest part, the backbone of the entire plane. Like a bridge it must carry any burden with steadfast dependability. And the main beam is built just like a bridge. At all times it carries all of the flying load, the engine load and the landing load. And it is stressed to support more than 5 times the total weight of a fully loaded plane. Completed and assembled, capable of supporting a static load of 70,000 lbs, the wing will do its job as the men who built it have done theirs.
The tail surfaces control the maneuverability of a plane. The use of twin rudders was developed by Lockheed and are one of the distinguishing features which point out every Lockheed. The fuselage is the body of the plane. It represents the final word in aerodynamic design and streamlining, and during construction these basic principles are built into the fuselage and applied to every operation from the beginning to the completed shell. As the first step in its assembly, the bulkheads are joined together by stringers which form the basic shape and strength of the fuselage Skin fitters then fit and shape the metal sheets attaching them with removable fasteners. on their heels come the riverters while every stage is under the close check of the inspectors. As the first step basic stength in its assembly on the fuselage while every stage of the assembly with continuous spot welders facilitates production and gives many fuselage parts an extra smoothness for better streamlining. With an eye to the future Lockheed is constantly enlarging on this process because better streamlining means greater speed. And so another fuselage is finished and ready for mating with the wing. Like a ship being launched it moves slowly down the ways. Slowly now, yes, but for just a little while longer. Soon sunlight will be glinting from its metal sides, its nose will point up wind. In the comfort of the cabin, passengers will read or write or sleep or think after their own fashion, and beneath it the lakes, rivers and valleys of the countryside will unfold Slowly still the fuselage is lowered into place, united with the wing. And now slow no longer: Speed on the water, speed on the snow, speed on wheels, on rails, speed on wings.
There is truth in the slogan that "It takes a Lockheed to beat a Lockheed." And as the plane approaches the field it slows down for the landing. The Fowler flap has been adopted and developed by Lockheed. The flap gives a greater lift to the wing and provides a brake action to reduce the speed. The plane lands at 65 mph and from a height of 50 ft it can come to a complete stop in less than 600 yards. This Lockheed Lodestar with its safety, its comfort, and its great speed typifies the ideals of aviation in America. To protect these ideals Lockheed is contributing its share toward national defense and the defense of democracy in other parts of the world. These B-14 bombers, better known as the Lockheed Hudson Bombers, are rolling off the production line at an ever increasing rate. They have been ordered in great quantities by Great Britian and Australia When ready for delivery by boat the Hudson bombers are dismantled, the sleek fuselages are carefully encased in canvas, and the wings, already stowed away below deck, are crated in wooden frames for safe shipment. When the planes reach their destination, they are easily reassembled and soon ready to take their places in the staunch defense of the British Empire. And while these planes start on their long journey by water, others are being given their final test flights for the tough job ahead. And still more are winging their way directly toward Canada. In combat, in actual line of duty, the Hudson bombers have won a name for their efficiency and dependability. And as America builds its planes for commerce and for defense it is well to remember that Americans invented the airplane and developed the modern conception of mass production used by Lockheed.
And out of the vast production line come Lockheeds: The 212, the Electra, the Twelve, the Hudson Bomber, the Lodestar, and now Lockheed's answer to the challenge of our times, the intercepter-pursuit P-38 It has been developed solely for national defense, and army officials consider it the fastest military plane in the world today. The P-38 a man-made comet! The P-38 is a completely new development in conception and design. The purpose of this deadly single-seater fighter is to prevent any would-be attacker from reaching its objective. vast quantities for the United States Army and many of its features are closely guarded military secrets. But it can be revealed that the P-38 will climb a mile in a minute and its motors are so quiet that it can approach any target almost without warning . And as wings soar higher above America so are soaring the hopes of free men the world over for they know whether it be for commerce or for defense, ship for ship, American planes have no equal and just as Lockheed commercial transports serve the people so the Lockheed military planes stand ready to serve should the need arise. The striking power of Hudson Bombers, the speed of the P-38.
Envisioned by Lockheed, engineered by Lockheed, built by Lockheed.
Wings of Eagles for the protection of our country. Wings of progress for the prosperity of our people, today and tomorrow. And the airplane of that tomorrow, who knows what it will be, for the march of aviation has been so swift, but what ever it is the world will look to Lockheed leadership then as it looks to Lockheed for leadership today.